Laurel J Trainor (2012)
Predictive information processing is a fundamental learning mechanism present in early development: evidence from infants
International Journal of Psychophysiology, 83(2):256-258.
Evidence is presented that predictive coding is fundamental to brain function and present in early infancy. Indeed, mismatch responses to unexpected auditory stimuli are among the earliest robust cortical event-related potential responses, and have been measured in young infants in response to many types of deviation, including in pitch, timing, and melodic pattern. Furthermore, mismatch responseschange quickly with specific experience, suggesting that predictive coding reflects a powerful, early-developing learning mechanism.