Laurel J Trainor (2005)
Are there critical periods for musical development?
Developmental Psychobiology, 46(3):262-278.
A critical period can be defined as a developmental window during which specificexperience has a greater effect than at other times. Musical behavior involves many skills, including the basic encoding of pitch and time information, understanding scale and harmonic structure, performance, interpretation, and composition. We review studies of genetics, behavior, and brain structure and function in conjunction with the experiences of auditory deprivation and musicalenrichment, and conclude that there is more supporting evidence for critical periods for basic than for more complex aspects of musical pitch acquisition. Much remains unknown about the mechanisms of interaction between genetic and experiential factors that create critical periods, but it is clear that there are multiple pathways for achieving musical expertise.