Peter Q Pfordresher (2003)
Auditory feedback in music performance: Evidence for a dissociation of sequencing and timing
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 29(5):949-964.
Four experiments examined temporal relationships between actions and auditory feedback in music performance. Experiment 1 incorporated phase shifts of feedback, which disrupted produced timing but not overall accuracy. Experiment 2 incorporated period shifts of pitch contents for synchronized feedback that primarily disrupted accuracy more than liming. Experiment 3 incorporated combined phase and period shifts, which caused moderate disruption to timing and accuracy and revealed interactive effects of period and phase shifts in production. A 4th experiment included all feedback conditions in the same session to confirm differences across Experiments 1-3. These results arc consistent with the view that actions and their perceptual consequences are coordinated in a way that distinguishes timing (phase shifts) from sequencing (period shifts).