Peter Q Pfordresher and Brian Benitez (2007)
Temporal coordination between actions and sound during sequence production
Human Movement Science, 26:742-756.
Delayed auditory feedback (DAF) causes asynchronies between perception and action that disrupt sequence production. Different delay lengths cause differing amounts of disruption that may reflect the phase location of feedback onsets relative to produced inter-response intervals, or the absolute temporal separation between actions and sounds. Two experiments addressed this issue by comparing the effects of traditional DAF, which uses a constant temporal separation, with delays that adjust temporal separation to maintain the phase location of feedback onsets within interresponse intervals. Participants played simple isochronous melodies on a keyboard, or tapped an isochronous beat, at three production rates. Disruption was best predicted by the phase location of feedback onsets, and diminished when feedback onsets formed harmonic phase ratios (phase synchrony). Both delay types led to similar effects. Different movement tasks (melody production versus tapping) led to slightly different patterns of disruption across phase that may relate to differing task demands. In general, these results support the view that perception and action are coordinated in relative rather than absolute time.