J D Kulpa and Peter Q Pfordresher (2013)
Effects of delayed auditory and visual feedback on sequence production
Experimental Brain Research, 224(1):69-77.
This study represents the first systematic comparison of the relative contributions of auditory and visual feedback to sequence production. Participants learned an isochronous melody that they performed on a keyboard and attempted to perform this sequence at a prescribed rate while auditory and visual feedback were manipulated. Delayed auditory feedback (DAF) and delayed visual feedback (DVF) both tended to slow production of the sequence. These effects were additive. There was no modulation of this effect of delay in either modality by the absence of feedback in the other. In contrast with past research, DAF did not increase timing variability, though DVF did. Motion analyses ruled out differences in salience of visual feedback between delayed and non-delayed conditions as an explanation of the effects of DVF. The results suggest that the effects of delayed feedback may be attributable to both sensorimotor interference and to conflicting information across feedback channels.