Barbara Fenesi, Jennifer J Heisz, Philip I Savage, David I Shore, and Joseph A Kim (2013)
Combining Best-Practice and Experimental Approaches: Redundancy, Images, and Misperceptions in Multimedia Learning
Journal of Experimental Education, 82:253-263.
This experiment combined controlled experimental design with a best-practice approach (i.e., real course content, subjective evaluations) to clarify the role of verbal redundancy, confirm the multimodal impact of images and narration, and highlight discrepancies between actual and perceived understanding. The authors presented 1 of 3 computer-based lecture conditions: audio, redundant (audio with redundant text), or complementary (audio with nonredundant text and images). Audio and redundant conditions produced similar actual understanding, whereas the complementary condition produced greatest actual understanding. Redundant condition learners perceived their understanding as greater than their actual understanding. Findings encourage multimedia research to balance controlled experiments with a best-practice approach to better understand effective multimedia design.